If the society happened through changes it was necessary that the school prepared the new modern man, to integrate itself to the new society who would have essentially to be democratic, taking to the renovadores educators consequently to include the process of modernization of the Brazilian society and, the necessity of new education and school. The New School is one of the names given to a movement of renovation of the education that was especially strong in Europe, in America and Brazil, in first half of century XX. Active School or Progressive School is more appropriate terms to describe that movement very criticized, still it can have many interesting ideas to offer to us. The first great inspiring ones of the New School were Jean writer Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) and the educators Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) and of Freidrich Froebel (1782-1852). The great name of the movement in America was the philosopher and educator John Dewey (1859-1952). In Brazil, the ideas of the New School would be introduced already in 1882 by Rui Barbosa (1849-1923). The concepts New School and Traditional School come being studied from the end of century XX.
To return to the most rational man is an idealistic, reflected project of the New Education, and diverse readings of Rousseau in that develops the boy, whose epistemology tries to know more and more, altering itself, also, the relations corporeidad-education and professor-student. It is this same action-activity that New School he will defend, removing the traditional of the education, less dynamic and libertarias conceptions. The pedagogical conceptions are altered and they are attenuated images like the present corporal punishments. A new one arises vision of the boy-student, being the experimentation, the scientific legality of the Process Education Learning; the motivation and the creativity, the desire of the student is the desire of professor, the mental competitions and the autonomy must be taken into account in the obtaining from the Process Education Learning.